Representing the people of Kabylia – Political and cultural representations in Kabylia: The denial of the Algerian regime

{{What would be the meaning of the word « representation » in a Kabylian context?}}

The context in itself is definitely important as it defines the very nature of the word representation in a whole. The Kabylian context is defined by the repressive authority of a central government that claims to be democratic but that is in fact a repressive dictatorship as far as culture and political representations are involved. What I mean is that representation in a democratic system is ipso facto legitimated by the system itself as it allows the freedom of speech thus representation.

In a dictatorship context, representation is by definition a concept that cannot be included in its globality.
Therefore, it becomes obvious that any human group in quest of recognition has to endowed itself with this representation. The main argument used to challenge the idea of autonomy of Kabylia is the one of representation meaning when groups organize themself to talk in the name of the people and claim for more freedom and representation, they are thus mentioned as illegal representators. One has to understand that such assertion cannot be held for reality because it is the fruit of a democratic mind that cannot be applied in a Kabylian context and to Kabylian groups of people struggling for recognition.

{{Political representation in the Kabylian context, the MAK (Movement for the Autonomy of Kabylia) and its leader Ferhat Mehenni.}}

The MAK is often accused by its opponents as illegally representing the people of Kabylia. Once again such perception admits that the Algerian regime is a democratic one; Which we know is not true. If we take a glance at the historical and political events in Algeria for the past five decades, we realize that the country is indeed paved with injustice: unfair decisions taken by a minority for the advantage of a the minority. The two revolts known as Tafsut Imazighen ( also called: Kabyl Spring- 1980) and Tafsut taberkant ( also called: Black Spring- 2001) against the discriminative Algerian policy toward Kabylia and its people are the most obvious examples.
In order to be able to set things and work for the advancement of democracy in Algeria, the MAK has no legal frame in which it can operate. Therefore and in order to initiate the march toward democracy, the MAK has no other choice than making decisions that may sound undemocratic for right now and if considered in a democratic environment but those decisions are totally legitimate considering the undemocratic background of the Algerian regime. Men and women therefore can be called to lead for a time until the legal frame is set to organize official functioning. Vote, consultation cannot be organized until the opponents to the regime can fully be recognized as official by the regime as well as the international scene and thus obtain the needed frame to function totally .

The MAK has to be perceived in the reality of the Kabylian context which is the reality that opposes Kabylia and Algeria. Therefore the MAK cannot be accused of taking over a democratic system because the MAK was formed as an opposition to the repressive Algerian regime and in the context of an anti-democratic system.

The MAK has no other way to force the Algerian regime to acknowledge it as a political representative of the people of Kabylia. So far the regime of Algiers acts blind and deaf. Because acting politically against the MAK would mean they acknowledge their effective existence, power and significance as an actor in political life. It would officialize the very idea of representation of Kabylia.

{{Cultural representation in the Kabylian context, the example of Matoub Lounès}}

If Algiers has so far ignored the actions of the MAK and the restless activity of Ferhat Mehenni, it has taken different options of consideration as far as culture is involved. The positions taken by the regime has been clear regarding the definition of culture. Right after the independence in 1962, everything was shaped according to the arabo islamic ideal thus denying the berber heritage.
The kabyl culture, the kabyl language were denied the position of choice they should have taken in the shaping of the national culture and identity. Tafsut Imazighen in 1980 ( Printemps Kabyle) has been the expression of the people of Kabylia’s refusal to be denied. Everyone remembers the violent repression the regime exercised on the youth willing to follow the thought of Mouloud Mammeri as a leader of the berberist movement.
By acting so, the regime has ackowledged the berber culture as an existing one and has defined it as a danger against its plan to shape Algeria as an Arab country. The regime has authorized itself to eliminate every action or individue that challenge the « official » culture set by the regime.
The murder of Matoub Lounes in 1998 is nothing but the official denial of the Berber heritage to be full part of the Algerian national culture. The recognition in 2002 of Tamazight as national language has been a political choice to lock and seize further claims from the Kabyls. By murdering Matoub, they have litteraly close the mouth of the Kabyl people.

{{The attitude of denial of the Algerian regime toward the existence of the people of Kabylia as an entity}}

All in all we see that the Algerian regime has two ways of denying the existence of the Kabyl entity. First of all by ignoring the possible political representation of the people of Kabylia. This can be called: Decisions without representation.
In 1773, when the colonists in Colonial America organized rebellion against the British Crown, it was because of the same problematic question of representation…. Taxations without representation. We see how representation is in fact important when willing to set a democracy. Within the actual Algerian political organization, the Kabyls are NOT represented. The RCD and the FFS are official political parties that do not stand and cannot stand in the name of the Kabyl people for the interest of the Kabyl people.

Considering the Algerian Constitution that reads:

{« Political parties cannot be organized on a religious, linguistic, racial, sex, corporation or regional basis. […] Any obedience of political parties, of any form, to foreign interests or foreign parties is forbidden. Political parties cannot use violence or pressure, whatever the nature and forms of it. »}

makes it clear that within the constitution, the Kabyl people has no way of being heard not to talk about being represented as an entity with its own linguistic and regional realities. Nevertheless, the people of Kabylia has the right to be heard. Therefore it become logic that some groups like the MAK stands up for the rights of the people.
Then, the brutal denial of the culture that is sadly illustrated by the murder of Matoub Lounes. Matoub can be considered as the voice of the Kabyl culture that claims laicity and non arabic roots for the people of Kabylia.
He has been murdered because he was challenging the very essence of what the Algerian regime had defined as cultural image of the country. By eliminating the voice of the people that stands different to what is defined to be Algerian, the Algerian regime has pushed the doors opened to settle its policy of islamization and arabization of Kabylia.
One may claim the fact that Tamazight has been recognized as national language is a sign of cultural recognition. If considering how this decision has been implemented as far as being introduced in the educational system, it is obvious that the Arabic language comes first and is the priority of the regime as a premium tool to eradicate kabyl culture through linguistic assimilation. By burrying the cultural heritage, the Algerian regime’s intention is to eliminate the very essence of what a political representant could claim.
Knowing this mischival attitude, it becomes a duty of the conscient man or woman to fight on a political level so as to restore the emprisonned culture.

Brigitte JAKOB

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18 Comments - Write a Comment

  1. This is not English. I have no clue what you are trying to convey. Word by word translation from French to English does not work. Try idea to idea.

  2. « Political parties cannot be organized on a religious, linguistic, racial, sex, corporation or regional basis. […] Any obedience of political parties, of any form, to foreign interests or foreign parties is forbidden. Political parties cannot use violence or pressure, whatever the nature and forms of it. »

    {{- The Algerian regime is an outlaw (out of its own law), why? Because it is religious (islamist), arabist, misogynist, vassal of the Arab-islamist imperialist powers (Egypt and Saoudia Arabia), violent, totalitarian, oppressive, repressive, and terrorist. So, according to this constitutional text, the Algerian regime must be urgently dismantled.

    {{In Algeria, law, whether local or international, is one thing, and reality is a different thing. Algeria as a whole is undergoing an Arabic-Islamic colonialism. I think what should be stressed is that all the Amazigh peoples composing the Algerian territory (country) are under the yoke of Arabic-Islamist colonialism.}}

    {{But what must be urgently stressed is that the Kabyle people and nation are undergoing a cultural and racial genocide under the indifferent eyes of the international community. This is the real truth, everything else is mere literature.}}

    Thank you for your time and understanding,

    1. Thanemirt a Yuguthen,

      ceci est une traduction de ton texte pour qu’il soit plus acessible:

      «Les partis politiques ne peuvent être organisés sur une base religieuse, linguistique, raciale, de sexe, de la corporation ou d’une région. […] Toute obédience des partis politiques, de toute forme, à des intérêts étrangers ou des étrangers est interdite. Les partis politiques ne peuvent pas recourir à la violence ou la contrainte, quelle qu’en soit la nature et les formes. »

      – Le régime algérien est hors ses propres lois. Pourquoi? Parce qu’il est religieux (islamiste), arabisant, misogyne, vassal des puissances impérialistes arabo-islamiste (Égypte et Arabie Séoudie), violent, totalitaire, oppresseur et terroriste. Ainsi, selon ce texte constitutionnel, le régime algérien doit être rapidement démonté. Explication:

      En Algérie, la loi, qu’elle soit locale ou internationale est une chose, et la réalité en est une autre. L’Algérie dans son ensemble fait l’objet d’un colonialisme arabo-islamique. Je pense que ce doit être souligné, c’est que tous les peuples amazighs qui composent le territoire algérien (pays) sont sous le joug du colonialisme arabo-islamiste.

      Mais il faut de toute urgence souligner que le peuple et la nation kabyle sont l’objet d’un génocide culturel et racial, sous les yeux indifférents de la communauté internationale.

      C’est la vérité, tout le reste est littérature.

      Merci pour votre temps et votre compréhension,

    2. Straight-forward – Indeed, the international community in indifferent, but our(Kabylian) resistence is acrually well understood and encouraged – That’s not neutrality, at all. Our self-defense is praised.

  3. {{Understanding Self-Determination: The Basics}}



    The right to self-determination, a fundamental principle of human rights law,(1) is an individual and collective right to « freely determine . . . political status and [to] freely pursue . . . economic, social and cultural development. » (2) The principle of self-determination is generally linked to the de-colonization process that took place after the promulgation of the United Nations Charter of 1945. (3) Of course, the obligation to respect the principle of self-determination is a prominent feature of the Charter, appearing, inter alia, in both Preamble to the Charter and in Article 1.

    The International Court of Justice refers to the right to self-determination as a right held by people rather than a right held by governments alone. (4) The two important United Nations studies on the right to self-determination set out factors of a people that give rise to possession of right to self-determination: a history of independence or self-rule in an identifiable territory, a distinct culture, and a will and capability to regain self-governance.(5)

    [{{Read more by clicking here}}:->]

    1. Sentinelle –

      Glad to see you monitoring this site… I want to bring attention to the following simple yet game-changer sentence you write: » The right to self-determination is of PEOPLEs, not only States  » –

      Consequently, I urge all Kabylians and others to build a solid relationship and get involved in any organisation (including States and Governments) which defends and promotes their(peoples’) genuine historical heritage, identity, values… and interests.

      In the case of the Kabylian People, the GPK is the only such organization.

      At this point in time, the algerian organization(accepted as government and state) by the international community, thank to Kabylian work, is but another organization which does not protect, promote, our identity, heritage and interests as a PEOPLE. It imposes its agenda and control/administration on us, only because we fail to do it ourselves.

      In 1948, there wasn’t enough people to populate the State of Israel, today – as small as it is in term of territory and population NONE can impose on it or any Jewish Israeli anything whatsoever !

      It is also absolutely necessary to the KDS, who are involved or just acknowledging the algiers mafia, that the state they form would cramble instantly without them – Nobody, not even the muslems recognize it!

  4. {{Self-determination and Arab imperialism}}

    Wednesday, November 21, 2007

    {{Yet another reminder of the role of Arab imperialism in suppressing the legitimate right to self-determination of native peoples in North Africa and the Middle East.}}

    Don’t Call Me Berber (Amazighe)

    Written by Adam Gonn

    Published Wednesday, November 21, 2007

    Note: Berber is the name given to the inhabitants of North Africa by Arab invaders; their own term is Amazighe, which means free people.

    The Amazighe have been living in North Africa for nearly 4,000 years. Early Berber states, which predate the arrival of the Arabs to the region in the seventh century, were known as Mauritania and Numidia.

    Until their conquest by Muslim Arabs, most of the Amazighe were Christian, and a sizable minority had accepted Judaism. Between the 11th and 13th centuries, the two great Amazighe dynasties, the Almoravids and the Almohads, controlled large parts of Spain, as well as north-west Africa.

    With time even these dynasties disintegrated and the Amazighe of the plains of North Africa were gradually absorbed by the Arabs, while those who lived in inaccessible mountain regions, among them the famed Atlas Mountains, remained more independent.

    When the French and the Spanish occupied much of North Africa, it was the Amazighe of these mountainous regions who offered the fiercest resistance. In more recent times the Amazighe, especially those of the Kabylia (Amazighe dominated areas), assisted in driving the French from Algeria.

    Today, there are an estimated 23 million Amazighe, with the largest populations in Morocco and Algeria, in addition to smaller numbers in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt.

    The connection between language and identity is very strong among the Amazighe and they take great pride in their own language, Thmazight.

    The Media Line (TML) spoke to Dr. Amar Almasude, an Amazighe born in Morocco, at Cappella University in Minneapolis to get some more insight on the question of language.

    According to Almasude, the language is the very essence of being Amazighe, as, for example, one would regard oneself as English because one speaks English, or Iranians who refer to themselves as Persians because they speak Farsi. This is why one of the main sources of friction in Morocco, where some 75 percent of the population is Amazighe, the official language is still Arabic and in schools the teaching is conducted in Arabic as well.

    The preference for Arabic has several reasons – Arabic is the language of Islam and 98% of Moroccans today are Muslims. Despite the fact that most Amazighe were originally Christian, today most of them are Sunni Muslim.

    Morocco is member of the Arab League, and as such the government is pushing for the country to be a Muslim Arab country and not an Amazighe country.

    In March 2000 the Amazighe Manifesto was published by leading members of the Amazighe community, in order to find a basis for discussion to ease friction between the Amazighe and the Moroccan government.

    The document outlines the situation of the Amazighe in Morocco and their feeling of having to be ashamed of their cultural heritage – the word berber derives from the word barbarian – while being forced to learn the ways of their Arab countrymen.

    Almasude told TML that during his school days the students used to be beaten for speaking Tamazight in class.

    The manifesto ends with nine requests in order to improve the status of the Amazighe. The list of requests starts with a call for a national debate on the different ethnic groups in Morocco and their history, since, according to the manifesto, the Amazighe identity was suppressed by the Moroccan government after the end of colonialism.

    There are also several requests regarding Tamazight, the national Amazighe language, that it be recognized as an official language and as such be noted in the country’s constitution. The manifesto points out the central role of the language in the Amazighe culture.

    « This is because they are Amazighe thanks to their language not to their race. They are completely aware of the fact that whoever among them exposes his language to loss is doing the same to his Amazighe existence, » Almasude says.

    There is also a request for economic compensation for the exploitation of the Amazighe since the rule of the French protectorate in 1912, occasioned by their long war against the colonizers and their economic marginalization. They regard this as the main cause behind their so-called « cultural retardation » and the dwindling of their political role in the country.

    Almasude says that today the situation has improved and Tamazight is being taught in schools and there are several Amazighe political organizations.

    « Perhaps one day if the political reforms in Morocco continue there might one day be an Amazighe nation, » he says.

    Copyright © 2007 The Media Line. All Rights Reserved. Source

    Posted by News Service at 4:30 AM
    Self-determination and Arab imperialism->]

    1. Wow Adam !

      What are your sources? why 4000 years, and not at least 45,000 or earlier?

      No Arabs didn’t call us Berbers, it’s the Romans, and that occured in the 5th century, for the simple alliance with the Nordic Barabarians, i.e Scandinavians. By barbarian is not meant without language or savage either, but who did not speak Greeck, and who did not subscribe to the platonic idea of the eternal father – Edward Gibbon explained it at length.

      So, the term was not used to designate all north Africans at all, since it is in north Africa where the justification, explanation and extraction of a modern Roman doctrine (Catholocism) was done – As you know, by someone who was versed in Amazigh, Greek and Latin, and who identified himself as his father, An African(Augustine), and not his Itanian settler mother(Monique) – In Souk-Ahras, his family was a land owner of prominant/wealthy family.

      Paradoxally where, the 1st protestant movement was born as well, which brought about the commonly used (yes misunderstood) notion of ecularism. The term was applied to the Slavic Clans in constant battle with roman forces at first before being applied to the clans in the eastern Atlas highlands, not far from Carhage(African capital of Roman Province) from which they were attacked, that is Kabylia indeed, which expands beyond its current days limits, to include the Chaoui land in the east and all the highlands westward past Algiers.

      The terms Cabalas (Conspirators) or Barbarians(non-Greek-Speakers) where used to designate the same People interchangeably, depending whether the speaker or writer was Spanish, French, Italian or Roman, Greek. Then, just like now, it is only the exposed plains that assimilate to any invader be it Turk, French or neo-baathist or mohamadian. In fact, Gibbon himself refers to Mohamed, the prophet of the Arabs, as a Barbarian.

      The truth is that the neo-Mohamadans, engaged in terrorism, plan to restore their acquisitions from India to Spain, and tho so-called western world, does not care as along as, commerce is not disturbed – particularly that of non-renewable comodoties – Gibbon would call that decadence, and it is indeed, decadence – And one for which the « west » will pay a lot, because commerce is people and territory -And both will be denied to them, not only in north africa, but throughout Africa. Rhe West and particularly the US, will have to deal with another billion or so enemies within a decade or so, if a change of course is not engaged immediately.

      The only place where liberal democrac is tolerated is Kabylia, a terroritory denied to the islamists or jealous mohamadans, and when that falls, the ripple-effect will be sensed throughout the continent – Until now, Kabylia and those it inspires are the only break applied to the process – For how much longer, is the million dollar question.

      From a 3rd party, perspective, the attitude of the so-called « free world » makes at times, wish they(mohamadans) succeed, as to put an end to the western attitude, arrangance and stupidity – In my view, they will fall and assimilate, the same way they did before Rome, i.e. with the winner. Kabylia is Israel are the last places where the doctrine itself is rejected, but that won’t last unfortunately. One da America will wake up and hear salam america coming from Asia, Africa and Europe.

      Kabylia will not suffer of it, as our traditions are used to overcoming them,for 15 centuries now, and Mohamadans don’t tolerate high altitudes. Then, you either are a mountain man and you survive, or ware a hijab for women, a skirt for men, and sing dixie in washington, dc.


      1. I agree with you, the fall of Kabylia under the yoke of mahomadan tyranny will sound the death knell of the whole western world and civilisation!

        We hope the west, which is absorbed by savage capitalism, will wake up before it’s too late!

        1. We hope the west, which is absorbed by savage capitalism, will wake up before it’s too late!

          Ouch…. where did you come up with this one?

          Adam, all directions diregulation and anarchy has nothing to do with capitalis, whatsoever…

          I think that there may be some confusion betweem unregulated capitalism, and control. etc.

          Though not sufficient, it is a necessary condition for prosperity – an indenspensable ingredient to happiness.

          1. appiness as in « life, liberty and the persuit of haBiness….
            Joke for you sentinell: « Can I bark here? » asked chief-tango next to UN building in Manhattan. « Sure as long as you don’t bite anyone! », replied the COP !

            The west? They sell the weaponery to this mafia paid with money from stolen goods(oil) – In all western countries, that’s against the law, yet governments do it or allow it to be done. The Mullahs regime shoots on thousands of green Iranians, and what does wasington do – restraint Israel from shelling the regime’s nukeBuildings… Between Statesmen of the 1700s I defend, and the current chewing gums, an abiss… I have sworn alligence to the document coposed by the 1st ones, and it pains me to have to pain any tax whatsoever to the latter – One corruption scandal after another. The system is F’d up !

            Sending these lines from Washington – I would b gone without that constitution – But don’t you worry,I have a copy !

  5. {{[Q&A: The Berbers->]}}

    For centuries Berbers have fought to prevent their language and culture from being swamped by Arabs. Most numerous in Morocco, they are scattered across nine countries. Their voice has been most loudly heard, amidst outbreaks of violence, in Algeria.

    {{Q: Who are they?}}

    The Berbers are a non-Semitic people who since prehistoric times inhabited the Mediterranean coastline from Egypt to the Atlantic. They dominated North Africa until it was conquered by Arabs in the 7th century.
    Ethnically, a majority of Moroccans and Algerians are Arabicised Berbers. Today it is more language and culture that set Berbers apart. Berber speakers account for some 50% of Moroccans and 30% of Algerians.

    {{Q: Where does the name come from?}}

    One theory derives ‘Berber’ from Barbaros, ancient Greek for ‘Outsiders’.

    Berbers call themselves ‘Imazighen’ (Free), plural of ‘Amazigh’. They call the Maghreb ‘Tamazgha’, or Land of the Imazighen.

    {{Q: What do they speak?}}

    Tamazight belongs to the Afro-Asiatic family and is related to ancient Egyptian and Ethiopian.

    The Moroccan government wants Tamazight taught in all schools within 10 years. It is recognised as a national language in Mali and Niger.

    In 2003 the Algerian authorities also made Tamazight a national language. But Berbers there want it to have equal status, as an ‘official language’, alongside Arabic.

    {{Q: Where do they live?}}

    Berbers are found in Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, Egypt, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, Mauritania.

    In Morocco and Algeria, they form groups with different dialects.

    Moroccan groups (Berber names in brackets): Shleuh (Ishalhiyan), in the High Atlas, Tashalhit dialect; Imazighen (Imazighen), Middle Atlas/Eastern High Atlas, Tamazight dialect; Rifans (Irifiyan), Northern Morocco, Tarifit dialect.

    Algerian groups: Kabyles (Taqbaylit), Kabylie region, Kabyle dialect; Chaouia (Ishawiyan), Eastern Algeria, Tashawit dialect; Mozabites (Imzabiyan), northern edge of Sahara, Tamzabit dialect; Tuaregs (Tamachaq), extreme south, Tuareg dialect.

    {{Q: Where are the other populations?}}

    Libya: In Jabal Nefusa, Zwara and Ghadamis.

    Tunisia (just 1% of the population): In Djerba, Tataouine, Metmata and east of Gafsa.

    Egypt: In the Siwa Oasis near the Libyan border.

    Tuareg: Some 600,000 Tuareg Berbers live in Mali and 400,000 in Niger. Tuareg Berbers also found in Algeria, Libya, Burkina Faso and Mauritania. Their total is put at 1.5-2.5 million.

    Canaries: The indigenous people were Berber. The language survived till the Spanish invasion in the 15th century. The first World Amazigh Congress was held in Gran Canaria (Tafira in Berber) in August 1997.

    Kabyle Berbers: Key dates:
    1963-65: Berber rebellion,
    March-April 1980: ‘Berber Spring’,
    September 1994-April 1995: School boycott,
    June 1998: Singer Matoub Lounes killed,
    April 2001: Wave of unrest starts,
    June 2001: Citizens’ Movement issues demands,

    {{Q: Who are the Kabyle Berbers?}}

    This group is the most active in promoting Berber identity. Kabylie region, east of Algiers, is home to some 5 million Berbers.

    It comprises the provinces of Tizi Ouzou, Bejaia and Bouira. Some 50% of neighbouring Setif, Bordj Bou Arreridj and Boumerdes provinces are Kabyle speakers. About half the 3-million-strong population of Algiers are Kabyles.

    {{Q: Why conflict with the government?}}

    Whereas Algeria’s constitution says Islam is the state religion and Arabic the official language, the Kabyles see their cultural and linguistic heritage in pre-Islamic North Africa.

    After Algeria gained independence in 1962, the Kabyles confronted the new government.

    The Socialist Forces Front (FFS), founded by war hero Hocine Ait Ahmed, led a two-year rebellion from 1963 to 1965.

    {{Q: What was the Berber Spring?}}

    In March 1980 police stopped writer Mouloud Mammeri from entering Tizi Ouzou to give a lecture on ancient Berber poetry.

    Students took to the streets in Kabylie region and later in Algiers. On 20 April security forces stormed Tizi Ouzou university.

    These events, known as the ‘Berber Spring’, centred on the language issue, which has remained a focus of discontent.

    The Berber Cultural Movement organised a rally in 1990 in Algiers to call for language recognition. The same demand was behind a school boycott in the Berber region from September 1994 to April 1995.
    Who was Matoub Lounes?

    Matoub Lounes was a singer who asserted the linguistic and cultural rights of the Kabyles.

    He was killed in an ambush in June 1998, shortly after his latest album parodied the national anthem. His death sparked weeks of violent protests.

    {{Q: What is the Citizens’ Movement?}}

    In April 2001 a student was killed in police custody in Tizi Ouzou, sparking riots which spread to other provinces.

    Over 120 people are said to have died in clashes which continued for much of 2001.

    A ‘Citizens’ Movement’ emerged in the Berber provinces. In June 2001 the movement met in El Kseur (Bejaia Province), and drafted the El Kseur Platform. It listed 15 demands, including full recognition for Tamazight.

    In 2004 Algerian Berbers threatened to boycott the presidential election over the language issue.

    BBC Monitoring, based in Caversham in southern England, selects and translates information from radio, television, press, news agencies and the Internet from 150 countries in more than 70 languages.

    {{[Q : What is the ANAVAD?->]}}

    1. Here is a video that shows some faces of the Kabyles who are still hostages of the slaughtering tyranny of islamic nazism:

      [Kabyle pride->]

    2. This is innacurate because incomplete – Omissions are source of falshood.
      Greeks referred to All Africans as Lybians at one time, then separated Ethiopians from Lybians laters, during the war between Black Africans(south) and North Africans.

      The word Barbarian meaning those tribes and peoples without Centralized Power vested in one Man who would have inherited his authority from God. Thus the defintion of the word as well as as the concept of the eternal father… Thus the origins of old testament, as in the statement of a testimony – most of which is a list of such witnessess and the path back to moses, a tribesman in old Egypt – from that 2nd and 3rd testament(jesus and Mohamed) – One for the philistines and the other for the syrians and arabians.

      The term took another meaning with more emphasis on belief-system(religion) later, and were included in the barbarians those whose conduct and organization did not include a King, a temple and the practice of worship of the authority of the eternal father through the King, who would have inherited his powers from the eternal father, upon which depended one’s life, later transformed into « eternal life », when in the initial form, it meant « simple survival ». Around the Mediteranean,it was believed that every king descended from the same eternal father from Rome to Syria – including the Persians, the Ethiopians, the arabians, the syrians, and the philistines and their multiple tribes from Egypt(Hebrews) or from syria and arabia(the arabs.
      By the time, navigation became common practice, a huge migration took place from the north east, down to East Central Europ, west to Germania and further to britania and Ireland, ad south through Gaule, to Catalania to Africa, with different names in different places, and Franks in central France, and Numidians in North Africa. The migration is known as the « Celtic Migration ». A territory was given to them west of Cartage(under Phenicians via treaty(1st punic war)) and East of Mauritania(established under one recognized King of the Moores), and north of Lybia(approximately modern lybia). The territory of the Numidans would approximately start at the border with Tunisia to the west towards Cherchell(west of Algiers). Numidian King Sephax, and Moore King Massinissa. Neither of them was referred to as a Barbarian nor their people since there was alliegence to the eternal father through the King. The evolution of the belief and the various rituals developed around it had lots of success in North Africa, particularly in the east(ALgeria and Tunisia) where the presence of 4 authorities(city-state) including Romans, Cartaginians, moores, Numidians and Lybians) before 3rd punic war. It is not until the 3rd Punic war that Massinissa engaged in Unifying the entire area, by taking over Carthage in coalition with Rome, and annexing The Numidian Territoy with their(rome) probation. It is then that Catalania and Gaules where Celtic culture begin flourishing were annexed as well, from which Jugurtha transpired. JUgurtha’s rebellions against Rome reduced the Authority of Rome to inside major cities only outside Carthage and westward as well. It is why the King of a City State on west Coast(Morocco to Mauritania) was set apart under the rule of Bauchus established around Tlemcen. The effect of this is Autonomies from Rome whose milicia concentrated in Cartage and suburbs, could not prevent the development of local authorities or Chieftains who were neither hostile to Rome or Jugurtha. Amongst the ones with whom he found common interest in romoving the authority of Rome from the area, are the Numedians who lost their Kingdom because of Rome – All of that at a time when Jugurtha was in conflict with the privileged biological children of Massinissa who were still young. Thus began (as soon as Jugurtha was eiminated) the normalization of City State throughout the region, by extending recognition but not sovereignty to the various chieftains, and the appearance of local assemblies as an authority – aarchs – i.e autonomies as far as local governance goes, while remaining Roman Citizens. The merged territory from Cherchell to Canstantine whic evolved from the association between Jugurtinians and Numidians, resulted in an entity which Romans called Barbarians for their exit from the sovereignety of Rome, are warlike tribes. The officialization, i.e its appearance on written form and in formal Roman Senate declaration took place after the hospitality given to the Vandals who enjoyed that term already, and the coalition built specifically to sack Rome and the control(Emperor elected by Senate) of the Eastern Kingdom(was Greek) – Thus was the entire region inherited the term – While at the beginning it was assigned only to those tribes in rural areas from Cherchell to main territory of the Numedians (Blida to Jijel) with high concentration in the highlands of Kabylia, especially after the arrival of the Vandals, the Islamsts/mohametans later adopted the term from Greece Turkey, and Catalania. From the 8th to the 12th Centuries, while no arabe immigrants came to settle in North Africa, most former city-state agglomerations who paid the moslim Tax, and prohrssively adopted rules of governance and group xenophobia (typical to self-alienation sick folks), the term began extending to the rural areas using the term taken either of the masters, i.e. babariyoun or aarouchia. This unformal norm of designation was reported and referred to in the official crrespondance between the Turkish beys and the caliph in Istambul – That there no central authority in North Africa, but a series of tribes and clans of similar poples, with similar langages, different religions, and each self-governing with assemblies with minimum authority, an a government with an army of volunteers which they assemble on as needed basis. The contact with them and the collection of taxes is through ATTACHE’S chosen from their own(where islam is rejected) called MOURABET and through a a preacher and the mosq in the cities where arabic and coran is known. In Morocco, not even arabic was accepted or used until the arrival of the French who able to locate a tribe with supposed mohameddan/arab ancestry, whose authority their established and enforced. The Coranic texs were translated wherever accepted. Similarly Tunisia was established by means of French normalization of moslem tribes ousted from former territory of the Jugurtinians and Numedians and later Vandals.

      If one was to attempt to identify area of concentration/density from each of the Groups, the Numidians would correspond the the Chaouis in a triangular shape around Constantine linking Jijel, Batna and Annaba, The Jugurtinians along the Atlas from Tiaret to Algiers and the Afro-Vandals, i.e (Numido-Moor)-Vandal along the line Cherchell-Algiers up to Jijel to Setif-Bouira-Medea back to Blida, with concentration in the highlands linking Bouira to Bejaia, down to the sea(dellys,Tigzirt) (i.e DJURDJURA). Instinctively, it was about how Algeria was divided into regions during the war against France!!!(NOT INDEPENDANCE)

      Honestly, I believe that for the entire region of North Africa to become stable abs sustain development into the far future(post oil and wheather transformations), the entire area, should be remapped based on historical ties and proximity, into more Autonomous States and counties, Cities and Villages. The Federalist Country will result in more states than currentlyare countries, in that Lybia would have to free political space for 2 tedancies it has as well as those who see themselves as Touaregs to join with those who see themselves as Touaregs too in Algeria, Niger, Nigeria, Mali, Algeria, then the Pro-Amazigh and Pro-Moslim/arbians – Tunisia into 2 groups(Amazigh and the rest), Morocco into at least 2 similar groups if not more(Chleuhs, Chaouis, Amazigh, Moore) , and ALgeria into 5 or 6 such States – And finally the Polisario as a State – All of them AUTONOMOUS, with regional Governments, Assemblies, and delegates to a National Assembly. The Country will end up a federation of

      1. Arabian-Tunisians,
      2. Amazigh-Tunisians,
      3. Chaoui-Algerians;
      4. Kabylian-ALgerian;
      5. Numedian-Algerian;
      6. Tlemceni-Algerian;
      7. Mzab-ALgerian;
      8. Midland-Algerian;
      9. Moroccan-Moroccan;
      10. Chleuh-Moroccan;
      11. Chaoui-Moroccan;
      12. Riffean-Moroccan;
      13. Polisario-Sahraoui;
      14. Mauritanian;
      15. Malian;
      16. Touareg;
      17. Amaigh-Libyan;
      18. Lybian-Libyan

      Each of these provinces/People, an internal subdivison into regions, counties, Cities and Villages. The level of dcentralization should emerge from agreements starting at the neighborhood level in cities, at the village level for counties(aarchs), at County level for regions, and the region level for each province. Thus from the smallest aglomeration of the size of a neghborhood or village, people choose to form political associations and representations, and the method of self-governance. WHat they want to manage independently and what they want to share wth others… Thus how to regulate their affairs. Naturally, the Federal Government, will receive its powers and prorogatives from State Assemblies, which get them from their County-assemblies, up to the individual.

      I think that naturally, each state and perhaps Counties within a state, will reserve certains responsabilities to itself, such as its security, education, language, regulation of certain matters such as family law, religion, and economic activity, roads and infrastrure, and environment. The Federal Government will be left with little such as diplomatic relations, national defense(physical border control/not an airpor in a city for examle, but the limits with Egypt for example), and the enforcement of certain rules such as the rights of movement from one state to another, and mediation of conflicts between various State governments, such as no double taxation or right of copaies to extend into each other’s territory, etc.

      Is it possible to achieve that?
      The answer is YES, with independent NGOs in collaboration with local associations, which would conduct honest and transparet research locally, following a pre-established protocole to insure ACCURACY and prevent fraud. A TOTALLY INDEPENDENT NGO of any current countries could under the embrella of a UN commission, set regional NGOs by country, and secure commitment to asistance from each country. Within each country, establish a local NGO to engage in the sponsorship of regional Associations, which would facilitate the protocole for the local associations( example: NGO in Algiers establish a coordinating Association in Kabylia Region) – This association will conclude the necessity of 3, 4 or more associations distributed geographically by contiguous sub-regions), and similarly up to the level of the city and Neighborhood or village for small ones, or parts in big villages.

      From there, research history, and inquire how people see possibility of association into creating a political system. While it would be easy and convergences will appear by factor of proximity, Divergences will submerge starting at the county level(aarch) – Thus a given village by anonimity/majority will see themselves as part of X county and not Y – Will see themselves in an assembly with a, b, c, d counties to form a region, and not with anyone else. Thus the contours of each State will start to emerge and the borders become clearer. The history of a region and a question relative perceptio of belonging, will also, identify convergences towards the formation of a State Assembly.

      In my opinion, the 18 regions/Provinces/States identified above will emerge or something close.

      Then the compilation of such data could be presented to to current Governments, and a Joint Commission can be establised could be formed to design a reorganization project in consultation with the various NGOs – Referundums could be ordered throughout the countries, to form new local assemblies which will be offered a template Constitution which they would correct, debate, etc. and pass amongst their constituents throughlocal referundum. COnduct local elections and form their local governments – Progressively from the village/town/city, up to the County, and the State. Finally, orgaize a Congress of deegates from the various regions, to debate a Template Constitution, negociate it, and submit it to general referundum, until adopted.
      Then identify institutions, and elect a government to run them, under the supervision of such Congress or Parlement.

      This can be done by simple inquiry into wat people want ! i.e reality.

  6. {{Greco-Berber Philosophers of Cyrene with some quotes}}

    1- {{ARISTIPUS of Cyrene (approx. 435 – 355 B.C.)}}




    He is the Cyrenian founder of the Cyrenian Academy of Philosophy. He came of a wealthy family of Cyrene, and lived around 435-355 BC. Somewhat older than Plato, he first followed Protagoras, whose theory of the senses affected him greatly. Later on he became a student of Socrates, whose teachings however did not change his biotheoretical views. After the death of Socrates he kept on living as a Sophist in Athens among other cities in Greece, and later on he spent some years next to Plato in the palace of Dionysius of Syracuse.

    Socrates teachings convinced him that knowledge is only worthy when it succeeds in practical and ethical pursuits.

    None of Aristippus’ writings has survived. Diogenes the Laertian mentions only the titles of his essays. His academy work was passed on to his homonym grandson by his daughter Arete who was the one to continue her father’s work to his academy.

    He refuses to deal with nothing other than ethic related problems. That is the reason why we find in this philosopher, ideas of main concern ethics and sentimentality.

    Aristippus thinks like Heraclitus and claims that the human body, like all things, is subject to constant change. Due to this change the harmony being the natural state of the body is altered, but this can be corrected. Harmony is pleasure; the lack of it means pain. Emotional situations are related to movement, thus slow and easy movement brings pleasure, hard and rapid movement brings pain. Perfect stillness evokes nothing, no pain nor pleasure. Man deserves only pleasure, so the only purpose of will is pleasure. That is how pleasure and virtue are connected, whatever is pleasant is good, while on the contrary everything that causes pain is evil. Everything out of this dipole should be out of concern.

    In the question, what is virtue, he answers without hesitation, “virtue is pleasure” thus becoming the founder of hedonism, similar to the eudemonia of Socrates, however Socrates idea is a momentary feeling, rather than a constant state of peace and healthy soul. He has no concern from where pleasure derives. All pleasures are of the same importance, differing only to their intensity. Material pleasure is more intense yet for a small period while ethical pleasures are constant.

    According to Aristippus, virtue is nothing but an intense momentary pleasure, as intense as it gets. For one to reach to such pleasure, prudence is needed, this being the Socratic element in his philosophy, giving knowledge its place as a valuable asset, setting one free of superstition, religiousness and vices and providing him with self confidence and certainty. It is of that certainty that the wise dominate to his surrounding environment, and use it according to his will. This is the profile of the wise man for Aristippus and his students, the man who can benefit from life’s beautiful things and the good side of people and situations, without losing control, but keeping it over his vices, without trying to have what one cannot have.

    He does not believe in social life, he is an atomist. As the Sophists, he also travels from town to town, living free out of every social and political boundary. He was totally indifferent towards religion, declaring that the wise man should be free of the religious beliefs.

    2- {{ANNICERIS of Cyrene (approx. 4th – 3rd century B.C.) follower of aristipus of Cyrene and founder of Cyreniac School which led to the founding of Epicurus School.}}


    A Cyrenian philosopher who lived during the end of the 4th century BC. Contrary to Aristippus and Theodore, Annikeris believed that real joy is achieved through friendship, community, family, teamplay, and the state, and that the pleasures of common life and social values do top the pleasures one can feel himself.

    These teachings opposed the pessimistic ones of Egesia, who led many Alexandrians to suicide, projecting the joy of life and pursuit of happiness inside the community as the most worthy of causes.

    3-{{ Hegesias of Cyrene, Cyrenaic philosopher, c. 300 BC}}





    « WE HAVE TO ARRANGE OUR LIFE AS IF WE ARE GOING TO LIVE FOR A SHORT TIME. » [{{Cette citation a ete usurpee par l’imposteur pseudo-prophete des Arabes}}]








    {{BIOGRAPHY 1}}

    A hedonic philosopher of the Cyrenaic Academy founded by Aristippus. He along with Annikeris studied next to Paraibatus, and later he taught in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy the First who banned him from teaching because he led many people to suicide with his ideas. This is why he was named the one who convinces people to death.

    Hegesias thought that pleasure is impossible because along with our actions, luck plays a great role in achieving it. He motivated his followers into voluntarily leaving this world, in order to be freed from the earthly problems, a freedom that according to the philosopher is the greatest joy of all. This is the only thing a man can achieve, the state of feeling nothing, not pain nor sorrow.

    Ptolemy was forced to banish him from Alexandria. Hegesias wrote a book named “the one who cannot suffer life anymore”, which refers to the sorrows of human life.

    {{Biography 2:}}

    Hegesias (Greek: Ἡγησίας; fl. 290 BCE[1]) of Cyrene was a Cyrenaic philosopher. He argued that happiness is impossible to achieve, and that the goal of life was the avoidance of pain and sorrow. Conventional values such as wealth, poverty, freedom, and slavery are all indifferent and produce no more pleasure than pain. Cicero claims that Hegesias wrote a book called Death by Starvation, which persuaded so many people that death is more desirable than life, that Hegesias was banned from teaching in Alexandria. It has been thought by some that Hegesias was influenced by Buddhist teachings.

    He is said by Diogenes Laërtius[2] to have been the pupil of Paraebates, who was a pupil of Epitimedes, who was a pupil of Antipater of Cyrene, who was a pupil of Aristippus (435-c.360 BCE). He was the fellow-student of Anniceris, from whom, however, he differed by presenting in its most pessimistic form the system which Anniceris softened and improved. [edit] Philosophy

    Hegesias followed Aristippus in considering pleasure as the goal of life; but, the view which he took of human life was more pessimistic. Happiness, he said, could not be the goal of life, because it is not attainable, and therefore concluded that the wise person’s only goal should be to become free from pain and sorrow. Since, too, every person is self-sufficient, all external goods were rejected as not being true sources of pleasure.

    Complete happiness cannot possibly exist; for that the body is full of many sensations, and that the mind sympathizes with the body, and is troubled when that is troubled, and also that fortune prevents many things which we cherished in anticipation; so that for all these reasons, perfect happiness eludes our grasp. Moreover, that both life and death are desirable. They also say that there is nothing naturally pleasant or unpleasant, but that owing to want, or rarity, or satiety, some people are pleased and some vexed; and that wealth and poverty have no influence at all on pleasure, for that rich people are not affected by pleasure in a different manner from poor people. In the same way they say that slavery and freedom are things indifferent, if measured by the standard of pleasure, and nobility and baseness of birth, and glory and infamy. They add that, for the foolish person it is expedient to live, but to the wise person it is a matter of indifference; and that the wise person will do everything for his own sake; for that he will not consider any one else of equal importance with himself; and he will see that if he were to obtain ever such great advantages from any one else, they would not be equal to what he could himself bestow.[2]

    Hence the sage ought to regard nothing but himself; action is quite indifferent; and if action, so also is life, which, therefore, is in no way more desirable than death.

    The wise person would not be so much absorbed in the pursuit of what is good, as in the attempt to avoid what is bad, considering the chief good to be living free from all trouble and pain: and that this end was attained best by those who looked upon the efficient causes of pleasure as indifferent.[2]

    None of this, however, is as strong as the testimony of Cicero,[3] who claims that Hegesias wrote a book called Death by Starvation (Greek: ἀποκαρτερῶν), in which a man who has resolved to starve himself is introduced as representing to his friends that death is actually more to be desired than life, and that the gloomy descriptions of human misery which this work contained were so overpowering, that they drove many persons to commit suicide, in consequence of which the author received the surname of Death-persuader (Peisithanatos). This book was published at Alexandria, where he was, in consequence, forbidden to teach by king Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 BCE).

    Hegesias of Cyrene, whose ruler may have been Magas of Cyrene, an apparent recipient of Buddhist missionnaries from the Indian king Ashoka according to the latter’s Edicts, is sometimes thought to have been influenced by Buddhist teachings.[4] Jean-Marie Guyau also paralleled his teachings to Buddhism.[5] [edit] Notes

    1. ^ Tiziano Dorandi, Chapter 2: Chronology, in Algra et al. (1999) The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy, page 47. Cambridge 2. ^ a b c Wikisource-logo.svg Hegesias in Diogenes Laërtius, Life of Aristippus. 3. ^ Cicero, Tusculanae Quaestiones i. 34 4. ^ « The philosopher Hegesias of Cyrene (nicknamed Peisithanatos, « The Death-Persuader ») was contemporary of Magas and was probably influenced by the teachings of the Buddhist missionnaries to Cyrene and Alexandria. His influence was such that he was ultimately prohited to teach. » Jean-Marie Lafont, INALCO in « Les Dossiers d’Archéologie », No254, p.78 5. ^ Éric Volant, Culture et mort volontaire, quoted in [1]

    4- {{Theodorus of Cyrene also called Theodorus the Atheist (340 – approx. 250 B.C.)}}

    Theodorus (Greek: Θεόδωρος; c. 340-c. 250 BCE[1]) the Atheist, of Cyrene, was a philosopher of the Cyrenaic school. He lived in both Greece and Alexandria, before ending his days in his native city of Cyrene. As a Cyrenaic philosopher, he taught that the goal of life was to obtain joy and avoid grief, and that the former resulted from knowledge, and the latter from ignorance. But his principal claim to fame was his alleged atheism. He was usually designated by ancient writers Atheus (Greek: ὁ ἄθεος), the Atheist.

    Theodorus was a disciple of the younger Aristippus,[2] grandson of the elder and more celebrated Aristippus.[3] He heard the lectures of a number of philosophers beside Aristippus; such as Anniceris, and Dionysius the dialectician,[4] Zeno of Citium, and Pyrrho.[5]

    He was banished from Cyrene, but for what reason is not stated;[6] and it is from the saying recorded of him on this occasion, « Men of Cyrene, you do ill in banishing me from Libya to Greece, »[6] as well as from his being a disciple of Aristippus, that we infer that he was a native of Cyrene. Of his subsequent history we have no connected account; but the anecdotes of him show that he was at Athens, where he narrowly escaped being cited before the Areopagus court. The influence, however, of Demetrius Phalereus shielded him;[7] and this incident may therefore probably be placed during Demetrius’ ten years of administration at Athens, 317-307 BC. As Theodorus was banished from Athens, and was afterwards in the service of Ptolemy in Egypt, it is not unlikely that he shared the overthrow and exile of Demetrius. The account of Amphicrates cited by Diogenes Laërtius,[7] that he was condemned to drink hemlock and so died, is doubtless an error. While in the service of Ptolemy, Theodorus was sent on an embassy to Lysimachus, whom he offended by the freedom of his remarks. One answer which he made to a threat of crucifixion which Lysimachus had used, has been celebrated by many ancient writers (Cicero,[8] Seneca,[9] etc.): « Employ such threats to those courtiers of yours; for it matters not to Theodorus whether he rots on the ground or in the air. » From the court or camp of Lysimachus he returned apparently to that of Ptolemy.[10] We read also of his going to Corinth with a number of his disciples:[10] but this was perhaps only a transient visit during his residence at Athens. He returned at length to Cyrene, and lived there, says Diogenes Laërtius,[6] with Magas, the stepson of Ptolemy, who ruled Cyrene for fifty years (c. 300-250 BC) as viceroy and then as king. Theodorus probably ended his days at Cyrene. Various characteristic anecdotes of Theodorus are preserved (Laërtius,[11] Plutarch,[12] Valerius Maximus,[13] Philo,[14] etc.), from which he appears to have been a man of keen and ready wit.

    Theodorus was the founder of a sect which was called after him Theodorei (Greek: Θεοδώρειοι), « Theodoreans. » The opinions of Theodorus, as we gather from the perplexed statement of Diogenes Laërtius,[15] were of the Cyrenaic school. He taught that the great end of human life is to obtain joy and avoid grief, and that the former resulted from knowledge, and the latter from ignorance. He defined the good as prudence and justice, and the bad as the opposite. Pleasure and pain, however, were indifferent. He made light of friendship and patriotism, and asserted that the world was his country. He taught that there was nothing naturally disgraceful in theft, adultery, or sacrilege; if one ignored public opinion which had been formed by the consent of fools.

    Theodorus was attacked for atheism. « He did away with all opinions respecting the Gods, » says Laërtius,[16] but some critics doubt whether he was absolutely an atheist, or simply denied the existence of the deities of popular belief. The charge of atheism is sustained by the popular designation of Atheus, by the authority of Cicero,[17] Laërtius,[2] Pseudo-Plutarch,[18] Sextus Empiricus,[19] and some Christian writers; while some others (e.g. Clement of Alexandria)[20] speak of him as only rejecting the popular theology.

    Theodorus wrote a book On the gods (Greek: Περὶ Θεῶν), which Laërtius who had seen it, says was not to be dismissed;[16] and he adds that it was said to have been the source of many of the statements or arguments of Epicurus. According to the Suda[5] he wrote many works both on the doctrines of his sect and on other subjects.


    {{GREEK COLONY Cyreniaca: First war between Egyptian Pharoes and Greeks (the two allies Pharaoes and Berbers against the Greek colonists of Cyrene were defeated).}}

    {{Battus II of Cyrene}}

    Battus II of Cyrene, sometimes called Eudaimon (the blessed) or the Latin equivalent Felix, (Greek: Βάττος ὁ Εὐδαίμων; flourished ca. 583 to 560 BC) was the third Greek king Cyrenaica and Cyrene and a member of the Battiad dynasty.

    Battus was the son of the second Cyrenaean king Arcesilaus I and an unknown mother. His paternal grandfather was Battus I, founder of the Greek colony in Africa. Battus’ sister was the princess Critola and was the maternal uncle to Polyarchus and future Cyrenaean Queen Eryxo. Eryxo would later marry his son. Polyarchus and Eryxo were among his sister’s children.


    An oracle delivered at Delphi encouraged people from various parts from Greece, particularly those in the Peloponnese, Crete and the other islands to settle in Cyrene. Battus also invited Greeks to move to Libya.

    The oracle declared that people who would ever settle in delightful Libya, would one day regret it. The oracle declared caused a great rush among Greeks to join Cyrene.

    {{Libyan Resentment}}

    The new Greek immigrants may have founded Apollonia. The city became the region’s port city (modern Susah, Libya). Cyrenaica’s population began to increase and they began to encroach upon the territory of the Libyans. The Libyans and their King Adicran, had resented the Greek settlers because they took their land and they had enough of the domineering attitude of the Greeks. [edit] Battle of Well of Thaetis

    Adicran dispatched an embassy to the Egyptian Pharaoh Apries. Apries collected his strong force and sent them to Cyrene to declare war on the Greeks. Around 570 BC the Egyptians, Battus and the Cyrenaeans marched to the Well of Thestis in Irasa to engage in war. The Cyrenaeans won against the Egyptian army. Very few Egyptians survived and returned home. Herodotus states that the Egyptians had no warfare experience against the Greeks and they didn’t take this battle seriously. Herodotus also states that this was the first battle that Greeks and Egyptians ever fought against each other.

    The victory at The Well of Thestis confirmed the sovereignty of Cyrene and the establishment of Cyrenaica and her new founding cities. Battus also made an alliance with the new Egyptian Pharaoh Amasis II.

    Plutarch considers Battus as a worthy and honourable man. Battus died in 560 BC and was buried near his father and paternal grandfather. Battus’ wife is unknown and was succeeded by his son Arcesilaus II .

  7. {{Herodotus (c.490-c.425 BCE): On Libya–North Africa}}

    In the accounts here, Herodotus describes the peoples and geography of North Africa west of Egypt. The Libyans of Herodotus are better known as todays Berbers.

    {{Book IV.42-43}}

    For my part I am astonished that men should ever have divided North africa, Asia, and Europe as they have, for they are exceedingly unequal. Europe extends the entire length of the other two, and for breadth will not even (as I think) bear to be compared to them. As for North africa, we know it to be washed on all sides by the sea, except where it is attached to Asia. This discovery was first made by Necos, the Egyptian king, who on desisting from the canal which he had begun between the Nile and the Arabian gulf [i.e., the Red Sea], sent to sea a number of ships manned by Phoenicians, with orders to make for the Pillars of Hercules, and return to Egypt through them, and by the Mediterranean. The Phoenicians took their departure from Egypt by way of the Erythraean sea, and so sailed into the southern ocean. When autumn came, they went ashore, wherever they might happen to be, and having sown a tract of land with corn, waited until the grain was fit to cut. Having reaped it, they again set sail; and thus it came to pass that two whole years went by, and it was not till the third year that they doubled the Pillars of Hercules, and made good their voyage home. On their return, they declared – I for my part do not believe them, but perhaps others may – that in sailing round North africa they had the sun upon their right hand. In this way was the extent of North africa first discovered.

    Next to these Phoenicians the Carthaginians, according to their own accounts, made the voyage. For Sataspes, son of Teaspes the Achaemenian, did not circumnavigate North africa, though he was sent to do so; but, fearing the length and desolateness of the journey, he turned back and left unaccomplished the task which had been set him by his mother. This man had used violence towards a maiden, the daughter of Zopyrus, son of Megabyzus, and King Xerxes was about to impale him for the offence, when his mother, who was a sister of Darius, begged him off, undertaking to punish his crime more heavily than the king himself had designed. She would force him, she said, to sail round North africa and return to Egypt by the Arabian gulf. Xerxes gave his consent; and Sataspes went down to Egypt, and there got a ship and crew, with which he set sail for the Pillars of Hercules. Having passed the Straits, he doubled the North africa headland, known as Cape Soloeis, and proceeded southward.

    Following this course for many months over a vast stretch of sea, and finding that more water than he had crossed still lay ever before him, he put about, and came back to Egypt. Thence proceeding to the court, he made report to Xerxes, that at the farthest point to which he had reached, the coast was occupied by a dwarfish race, who wore a dress made from the palm tree. These people, whenever he landed, left their towns and fled away to the mountains; his men, however, did them no wrong, only entering into their cities and taking some of their cattle. The reason why he had not sailed quite round North africa was, he said, because the ship stopped, and would no go any further. Xerxes, however, did not accept this account for true; and so Sataspes, as he had failed to accomplish the task set him, was impaled by the king’s orders in accordance with the former sentence.

    {{Book IV.168-198}}

    The Berbers dwell in the order which I will now describe. Beginning on the side of Egypt, the first Berbers are the Adyrmachidae. These people have, in most points, the same customs as the Egyptians, but use the costume of the Berbers. Their women wear on each leg a ring made of bronze; they let their hair grow long, and when they catch any vermin on their persons, bite it and throw it away. In this they differ from all the other Berbers. They are also the only tribe with whom the custom obtains of bringing all women about to become brides before the king, that he may choose such as are agreeable to him. The Adyrmachidae extend from the borders of Egypt to the harbor called Port Plynus. Next to the Adyrmachidae are the Gilligammae, who inhabit the country westward as far as the island of Aphrodisias. Off this tract is the island of Platea, which the Cyrenaeans colonized. Here too, upon the mainland, are Port Menelaus, and Aziris, where the Cyrenaeans once lived. The Silphium begins to grow in this region, extending from the island of Platea on the one side to the mouth of the Syrtis on the other. The customs of the Gilligammae are like those of the rest of their countrymen.

    The Asbystae adjoin the Gilligammae upon the west. They inhabit the regions above Cyrene, but do not reach to the coast, which belongs to the Cyrenaeans. Four-horse chariots are in more common use among them than among any other Berbers. In most of their customs they ape the manners of the Cyrenaeans. Westward of the Asbystae dwell the Auschisae, who possess the country above Barca, reaching, however, to the sea at the place called Euesperides. In the middle of their territory is the little tribe of the Cabalians, which touches the coast near Tauchira, a city of the Barcaeans. Their customs are like those of the Berbers above Cyrene.

    The Nasamonians, a numerous people, are the western neighbors of the Auschisae. In summer they leave their flocks and herds upon the sea-shore, and go up the country to a place called Augila, where they gather the dates from the palms, which in those parts grow thickly, and are of great size, all of them being of the fruit-bearing kind. They also chase the locusts, and, when caught, dry them in the sun, after which they grind them to powder, and, sprinkling this upon their milk, so drink it. Each man among them has several wives, in their intercourse with whom they resemble the Massagetae. The following are their customs in the swearing of oaths and the practice of augury. The man, as he swears, lays his hand upon the tomb of some one considered to have been pre-eminently just and good, and so doing swears by his name. For divination they betake themselves to the sepulchers of their own ancestors, and, after praying, lie down to sleep upon their graves; by the dreams which then come to them they guide their conduct. When they pledge their faith to one another, each gives the other to drink out of his hand; if there be no liquid to be had, they take up dust from the ground, and put their tongues to it.

    On the country of the Nasamonians borders that of the Psylli, who were swept away under the following circumstances. The south-wind had blown for a long time and dried up all the tanks in which their water was stored. Now the whole region within the Syrtis is utterly devoid of springs. Accordingly the Psylli took counsel among themselves, and by common consent made war upon the southwind—so at least the Berbers say, I do but repeat their words—they went forth and reached the desert; but there the south-wind rose and buried them under heaps of sand: whereupon, the Psylli being destroyed, their lands passed to the Nasamonians. […]

    {{Read the second part of this article in the next post.}}

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